Previous versions of Jenkins did not authenticate slave nodes that tried to connect to JNLP. With newer versions (>= 1.498-ish), the java -jar slave.jar -jnlpUrl ... needs to have a -secret <HMAC> argument to allow the slave node to connect if security is enabled.
The two recipes that have a problem are jenkins::node_jnlp and jenkins::node_windows. I have a patch and am going to make a pull request shortly. Unfortunately there are no kitchen tests for these recipes so you'll just have to take my word that they work